What is a human disease?

An impairment of the human body's normal state that alters its vital functions. The term disease is often used more broadly in humans to refer to any disorder that results in pain, discomfort, social distress, or even death. This is any state which causes damage to the structure or function of an organism, generally characterized by certain signs and symptoms, but varying from physical injury.


Cure vs. treatment


An individual's health is restored through a cure, while treatment involves the administration of medicines, surgery, and psychotherapy to heal a person or to treat a condition or symptom.  Improvement in health is the result of this process, but not necessarily the elimination of disease. Handling a person or a thing is referred to as treatment.



Difference between infection and disease :


Infection : 

An infection occurs when an organism attacks or grows inside the body, therefore causing harm. A micro-organism that invades the body and multiplies, such as bacteria, viruses, and parasites. 




Symptoms include:

● Having a headache 
● Constipation 
● Sweating 
● Having a bodyache 
● Loss of weight 
● Loss of appetite 


Disease :

When a pathogen infects the body, the immune system starts to weaken, resulting in the body already responding automatically. But it also depends on which part of the body is infected. This condition of the body is referred to as a disease.


Symptoms include:

● Pain 
● Fever
● Aches


Diseases are classified as follows:


● Physical disease : 

Often, it is used in contrast to a mental disorder to distinguish medical disorders that can be tested mechanically, such as a chemical test or brain scan. This illness affects only one part of the body, suggesting that it's isolated.


Examples :

1. Diabetes 
2. Chronic respiratory 
3. Chronic neurological
4. Chronic pain
5. Cardiovascular 


Symptoms :

1. Pain
2. Weakness
3. Shortness of breath
4. Excessive thoughts, feelings and behaviour relating to the physical symptoms.


● Infectious disease :

An infectious disease is caused by harmful organisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites. We are surrounded by a wide variety of organisms. They are generally harmless or helpful. Some organisms, however, can cause disease under certain conditions. The transmission of some infectious diseases is possible. 


Examples :

1. Hepatitis B
2. Malaria 
3. Dengue
4. Hepatitis C
5. Tuberculosis 


Symptoms :

1. Fever 
2. Diarrhea
3. Fatigue
4. Muscle ache
5. Coughing 


● Non-infectious disease :

Diseases that are not caused by pathogens. Genetic or environmental factors, such as a toxic environment or an unhealthy lifestyle, are generally responsible for noninfectious diseases.


Examples :


1. Cystic fibrosis : This affects cells that create mucus, sweat and digestive juices.
2. Cancer : Cancer cells age or are damaged, they die, resulting in new cells replacing them. Fever, hair loss, fatigue, and changes to your skin are some of the symptoms.
3. Cardiovascular diseases : Also known as heart conditions, include a range of diseases affecting the vessels, structural problems, and blood clots.
4. Coronary artery disease: Damage or disease to the major blood vessels of the heart. It is usually caused by plaque buildup. As a result, coronary arteries narrow, limiting blood flow to the heart.
5. Diabetes mellitus : This occurs when your body has trouble absorbing sugar (glucose) and using it for energy. Increased blood sugar levels are the result.


● Mental disease :

Mental disorders affect mood, thinking, and behavior in a variety of ways.


Examples :

1. Clinical depression
2. Anxiety disorder
3. Bipolar disorder
4. Depression
5. Addiction disorder



Symptoms :

1. Feeling sad or depressed
2. Having trouble concentrating or thinking clearly
3. An excessive amount of worry or fear 
4. Social withdrawal and withdrawal from activities
5. Lack of ability to cope with daily problems and stress
6. Suicidal thoughts


● Deficiency disease :

In the human body, these can be caused by a lack of essential nutrients or dietary elements such as vitamins and minerals. 


Examples : 

1. Malnutrition
2. Scurvy
3. Rickets
4. Beriberi
5. Vitamin K deficiency
6. Iron deficiency


Symptoms :

1. Fatigue
2. Weight Loss 
3. Muscle weakness
4. Pale and yellowish skin
5. Dizziness and irregular heartbeats


● Inherited disease :

DNA abnormalities cause this disorder, which is also called a genetic disorder.


Examples :

1. Down syndrome
2. Cystic fibrosis
3. Thalassemia
4. Sickle cell anemia


Symptoms :

1. Patients can experience mild or severe symptoms, depending on their condition
2. Characteristic appearance widely recognized by the public






● Social disease :

Infection transmitted through sexual contact or by sexual intercourse. 


Examples :

1. Cupid’s disease
2. STD
3. Sexually transmitted disease
4. Venereal disease


Symptoms :

1. Fast heartbeat
2. Sweating
3. Trembling
4. Upset stomach or nausea
5. Trouble catching breath


Here are some ways to treat diseases today:


● A person will always have the disease, however treatment may enable them to manage it better.
● Thousands of medications, therapies, surgeries, and other treatments are used by medical professionals every day to help reduce the symptoms and effects of diseases.
● They can have the effect of curing a disease, in other words, they heal the patient.


A modern medicine approach to treating diseases:


● As a result of modern medicine, there have been numerous advancements in the fields of infectious diseases and emergency care. 
● Other than that, it primarily aims for control, otherwise known as palliation.
● Pharmacology in general, including psychopharmacology, is largely dedicated to such control and palliation as well.  


Medicines can be classified into the following types:

There are many types and formats of medicines. You should be aware, however, that some medicines are only available in one form. Furthermore, some types may be more effective than others.


Fluid :

Liquids combine the active ingredient of the medicine so that it can be taken or absorbed more easily. You can also call a liquid a 'mixture', a 'solution', or a 'syrup'. Several common liquids are now available without any added sugar or colour.





Active ingredients are blended with another substance and formed into solid, rounded or oval shapes. Various kinds of tablets are available. The dispersible or soluble tablets can be dissolved in water safely.


A capsule :

A plastic shell contains the medicine's active ingredients that dissolve slowly in the stomach. Some capsules can be taken apart and mixed with your child's favorite food. The capsule shell of some medicines must be broken down by the stomach acid before they can be absorbed, so the medicine can be absorbed after the capsule is swallowed whole.


Medicines that fall into other categories include:


Topical medications :

The skin is treated with creams, lotions, and ointments directly applied. The types of medicines differ in the manner in which they are packaged. The active ingredient in the medicine is mixed with another substance, which allows the medicine to be applied to the skin smoothly and easily.


Drops :

When it is necessary to deliver an active component directly to an affected area, these devices are often used. Eye, ear, and nose procedures tend to use them.


Inhalers :

As the medicine is injected into the lungs, the active ingredient is released under pressure. The medicine may need to be taken correctly by children using a 'spacer' device. At first, using inhalers may seem challenging; therefore, your pharmacist can teach you how to use them.


Injections :

Different injections are made in different ways and places. A subcutaneous injection is one that is given just beneath the skin. During an intramuscular injection, a substance is injected into a muscle. Spinal fluid is injected with intrathecal injections. A vein is used for intravenous injections. Injections can sometimes be given at home, but most must be given at your doctor's clinic or at the hospital.


Here are some guidelines for preventing disease:

● Eating a healthy and balanced diet can prevent diseases
● Regularly exercise and engage in physical activity
● Don't drink too much alcohol
● You should get screened
● Make sure you get enough sleep
● Ensure that you live a healthy lifestyle at work, at home, and in the community




Infectious diseases threaten health, economic development, and equity of opportunity, especially in low- and middle-income countries and disproportionately among young people.

Public health strategies focus on preventing diseases or reducing the impact of diseases by protecting the health and wellbeing of the entire population, as opposed to medical strategies that are aimed at treating individual members of the populations.


A public health approach to infectious diseases involves: screening, surveillance, monitoring, and reporting of disease outbreaks community education to improve health-related behaviours and build human resistance to infection, such as vaccination and nutrition community mobilization to reduce threat of infection from the environment case finding, case containment, and isolation of infectious individuals.


A vaccine program, clean drinking water, improved sanitation, personal and institutional hygiene (particularly handwashing with soap), and improving sanitation are all essential.  As part of the public health approach, strategies for detecting and controlling disease outbreaks need to be developed and organised. 


In addition to raising sustainable living standards, improving the quality of housing, nutrition, and education, and promoting gender equality and personal security are also important public health objectives.The success of infection-control campaigns relies heavily on the participation of communities and community health workers with limited training. Low- and middle-income countries are particularly affected by this.


Author Bio :


I am Aradhya Jain, an experienced healthcare provider certified in natural medicine. Natural products are the key to healthy hair, just as nature is the key to a healthy environment. Every time I write an article, I try to share as much of my expertise as possible so that it will be helpful to my readers.